What is the main idea behind Neuroconsulting Services?

If one wants to understand how humans function regarding their decision making and behavior production it is not enough to ask them what they prefer or plan to do. Because the brain knows more than it admits to conscious language and, because perception is only a construct of our mind, an explicit response can be misleading, objective measures are essential to get access to the non-conscious mind that actually guides human behavior.

Why is perception so interesting? Because for us it is felt as a true representation of the environment, which in fact it isn't!

The brain creates movement where there isn't any movement!

Look at the little dot in the center of the left image and move your head forward and backward. You see that the circles rotate against each other as you change the distance to the image. Seeing is the conscious, perceptive act of processing visual information and perception is the result of the brain's interpretation, it is a construct of the mind (i.e. psyche).

Academic background

Peter startet his academic career with studying Biology focusing on Zoology with a main interest in neurophysiological phenomena. He wrote his Master thesis on spectral sensitivities in single photoreceptor cells in spider eyes (8 months at Yokohama City University in Japan). He then wrote his dissertation on human memory functions via using brain imaging methods and finally earned two habilitations (postdoctoral thesis defenses), one at the Medical University in Vienna (Cognitive Neurobiology) and the other at the Vienna University (Biological Psychology). Peter's main interest is in non-conscious information processing in the human brain. He uses brain imaging and other objective methods to investigate brain functions outside awareness.

Peer-reviewed scientific publications:

  • Walla, P., and Patschka, M. (2024). Non-conscious affective processing in asset managers during financial decisions: A neurobiological perspective. Applied Sciences, 14(9), 3633. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/14/9/3633
  • Walla, P., Kalt, S., and Külzer, D. (2024). Event-related potentials (ERPs) reveal that trust and distrust differ between brands and political institutions. NeuroIS proceedings.
  • Külzer, D., Kalt, S., and Walla, P. (2024). The Connection between Neurophysiological Correlates of Trust and Distrust and Isolated HEXACO Dimensions. Life, 14(3), 362. https://doi.org/10.3390/life14030362
  • Walla, P.; Zheng, Y. (2024). Intense Short-Video-Based Social Media Use reduces the P300 Event-Related Potential Component in a Visual Oddball Experiment: A Sign for Reduced Attention. Life, 14, 290. https://doi.org/10.3390/life14030290
  • Bosshard, S., and Walla, P. (2023) Sonic Influence on Initially Neutral Brands: Using EEG to Unveil the Secrets of Audio Evaluative Conditioning. Brain Sci. 2023, 13, 1393. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13050831
  • Walla, P.; Külzer, D.; Leeb, A.; Moidl, L.; Kalt, S. Brain Activities Show There Is Nothing Like a Real Friend in Contrast to Influencers and Other Celebrities. Brain Sci. 2023, 13, 831. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13050831
  • Soiné, A., and Walla, P. (2023). Sex-Determined Alteration of Frontal Electroencephalographic (EEG) Activity in Social Presence. Life, 13, 585. https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020585
  • Pavlevchev, S., Chang, M., Flöck, A.N., and Walla, P. (2022). Subliminal Word Processing: EEG Detects Word Processing Below Conscious Awareness. Brain Sci., 12, 464. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12040464
  • Walla, P., Leybourne, R., and Pavlevchev, S. (2022). Our brain reads, while we can’t: EEG reveals word-specific brain activity in the absence of word recognition. NeuroIS Conference 2022; Volume 58, 1-7.
  • Walla, P., Northoff, G., and Herbert, C. (2021). The Human Self Has Two Serial Aspects and Is Dynamic: A Concept Based on Neurophysiological Evidence Supporting a Multiple Aspects Self Theory (MAST). Life, 11, 611. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11070611
  • Soiné, A., Flöck, A.N., and Walla, P. (2021). Electroencephalography (EEG) Reveals Increased Frontal Activity in Social Presence. Brain Sci., 11, 731. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060731
  • Walla, P., Chang, M., Schaefer, K., and Windhager, S. (2020). Social Perception of Faces: Brain Imaging and Subjective Ratings. Brain Sci., 10, 861. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110861
  • Kunaharan, S., Halpin, S., Sitharthan, T., Walla, P. (2020). Do Varying Levels of Exposure to Pornography and Violence Have an Effect on Non-Conscious Emotion in Men? Arch Sex Behav., 49(4):1215-1229. doi: 10.1007/s10508-019-01550-8
  • vom Brocke, J., Hevner, A., Majorique Léger, P., Walla, P., Riedl, R. (2020). Advancing a NeuroIS research agenda with four areas of societal contributions, European Journal of Information Systems, 29:1, 9-24, doi: 10.1080/0960085X.2019.1708218.
  • Flöck A.N., Walla P. (2020). Think Outside the Box: Small, Enclosed Spaces Alter Brain Activity as Measured with Electroencephalography (EEG). In: Davis F.D., Riedl R., vom Brocke J., Léger PM., Randolph A.B., Fischer T. (eds) Information Systems and Neuroscience. NeuroIS 2020. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation, vol 43. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60073-0_3.
  • Walla, P., Lozovic, S. (2020). The Effect of Technology on Human Social Perception: a multimethods NeuroIS pilot investigation. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation, Volume 32: 63-71.
  • Chang, M., Pavlevchev, S., Flöck, A., Walla, P. (2020). The Effect of Body Positions on Word Recognition: A Multi-Methods NeuroIS Study. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation, Volume 32: 327-335.
  • Bosshard, S., Koller, M., Walla, P. (2019). Can Evaluative Conditioning Change Well-Established Attitudes Towards Popular Brands? Your Brain Says Yes Even Though Your Mouth Says No. Brain Sci., 9, 106. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9050106
  • Brenner, G., Koller, M., and Walla, P. (2019). Enhancing the implicit association test: A fourstep model to find appropriate stimuli. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation 29, pp. 111-118.
  • Kunaharan, S., Halpin, S., Sitharthan, T., and Walla, P. (2019). Do EEG and Startle Reflex Modulation Vary with Self-Reported Aggression in Response to Violent Images?. Brain Sciences, 9 (11): 298. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9110298
  • Walla, P. (2018). Editorial: Sub- and Unconscious Information Processing in the Human Brain. Appl. Sci., 8, 979. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060979
  • Herbert, C., Ethofer, .T, Fallgatter, A.J., Walla, P. and Northoff, G. (2018). Editorial: The Janus Face of Language: Where Are the Emotions in Words and Where Are the Words in Emotions? Front. Psychol. 9:650. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00650
  • Herbert C, Ethofer T, Fallgatter AJ, Walla P and Northoff G (2018). Editorial: The Janus Face of Language: Where Are the Emotions in Words and Where Are the Words in Emotions? Front. Psychol. 9:650. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00650
  • Walla P. (2018). Affective Processing Guides Behavior and Emotions Communicate Feelings: Towards a Guideline for the NeuroIS Community. In: Davis F., Riedl R., vom Brocke J., Léger PM., Randolph A. (eds) Information Systems and Neuroscience. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation, vol 25. Springer, Cham
  • Herbert, C., Ethofer, T., Fallgatter, A. J., Walla, P., & Northoff, G. (2018). The Janus Face of Language: Where Are the Emotions in Words and Where Are the Words in Emotions?. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00650.
  • Kunaharan, S., Halpin, S., Sitharthan, T., Bosshard, S., Walla, P. (2017). Conscious and Non-Conscious Measures of Emotion: Do They Vary with Frequency of Pornography Use? Appl. Sci., 7, 493. https://doi.org/10.3390/app7050493
  • Walla, P., Koller, M., Brenner, G., and Bosshard, S. (2017). Evaluative conditioning of established brands: implicit measures reveal other effects than explicit measures. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, Vol 10(1), Mar 2017, 24-41.
  • Walla, P., and Schweiger, M. (2017). Samsung versus Apple: Smartphones and Their Conscious and Non-conscious Affective Impact. Full conference paper in Information Systems and Neuroscience. Volume 16 of the series Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation pp 73-82. 2
  • Fay, V., Fay, N., and Walla, P. (2016). Attitudes of Psychology Students Toward Expressive Therapies. Cogent Psychology, 3: 1241459.
  • Bosshard, S., Bourke, J., Kunaharan, S., Koller, M., and Walla, P. (2016). Established liked versus disliked brands: brain activity, implicit associations and explicit responses. Cogent Psychology, 3: 1176691
  • Walla, P., Koller, M., Brenner, G., and Bosshard, S. (2016). Evaluative Conditioning of Brand Attitude - Comparing Explicit and Implicit Measures. Conference paper accepted for the 2016 European Marketing Academy conference in Oslo.
  • Montag, C., and Walla, P. (2016). Carpe Diem instead of losing your social mind: Beyond digital addiction and why we all suffer from digital overuse. Cogent Psychology, 3: 1157281.
  • Mavratzakis, A., Herbert, C., and Walla, P. (2016). Emotional facial expressions evoke faster orienting responses, but weaker emotional responses at neural and behavioural levels compared to scenes: A simultaneous EEG and facial EMG study. Neuroimage, 124: 931-946.
  • Walla, P. and Koller, M. (2015). Emotion is not what you think it is: Startle Reflex Modulation (SRM) as a measure of affective processing in NeuroIs. NeuroIs conference proceedings, Springer.
  • Walla, P., and Herbert, C. (2015). Hierarchy and dynamics of self-referential processing: The non-personal Me1 and the personal Me2 elicited via single words. Cogent Psychology, 2: 1019236.
  • Kunaharan, S. & Walla, P. (2014). Clinical Neuroscience—Towards a Better Understanding of Non-Conscious versus Conscious Processes Involved in Impulsive Aggressive Behaviours and Pornography Viewership. Psychology, 5, 1963-1966.
  • Walla, P., Koller, M., and Meier, J. (2014). Consumer neuroscience to inform consumers—physiological methods to identify attitude formation related to over-consumption and environmental damage. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, , 20 May 2014 | doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00304.
  • Mavratzakis, A., Molloy, E., and Walla, P. (2013). Modulation of the startle reflex during brief and sustained exposure to emotional pictures. Psychology, 4: 389-395.
  • Walla, P., Rosser, L. Scharfenberger, J. Duregger, C., and Bosshard, S. (2013). Emotion ownership: different effects on explicit ratings and implicit responses. Psychology, 3A: 213-216.
  • Lyons, G.S., Walla, P. and Arthur-Kelly, M. (2013). Toward improved ways of knowing children with profound multiple disabilities(PMD): Introducing startle reflex modulation. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 16(5): 340-344.
  • Koller, M., and Walla, P. (2012). Measuring Affective Information Processing in Information Systems and Consumer Research – Introducing Startle Reflex Modulation. ICIS Proceedings, Breakthrough ideas, full paper in conference proceedings, Orlando 2012.
  • Grahl A., Greiner, U. and Walla, P. (2012). Bottle shape elicits gender-specific emotion: a startle reflex modulation study. Psychology, 7: 548-554.
  • Walla, P., Duregger, C., Deecke, L., Dal-Bianco, P. (2011). Dysfunctional incidental olfaction in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): an Electroencephalography (EEG) study. Brain Sciences, 1(1):3-15.
  • Walla, P., Brenner, G., and Koller, M. (2011). Objective measures of emotion related to brand attitude: A new way to quantify emotion-related aspects relevant to marketing. PloS ONE, 6(11): e26782. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026782.
  • Heereman, J., and Walla, P. (2011). Stress and decision confidence. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, DOI 10.1007/s10484-011-9167-9.
  • Geiser, M., and Walla, P. (2011). Objective measures of emotion during virtual walks through urban neighbour-hoods. Applied Sciences, 1: 1-11.
  • Walla, P., and Deecke, L. (2010). Odours Influence Visually Induced Emotion: Behavior and Neuroimaging. Sensors, 10: 8185-8197
  • Mathes, B., Pomper, U., Walla, P., and Basar-Eroglu, C. (2010). Dissociation of reversal-and motor-related delta and alpha band responses during visual multistable perception. Neuroscience Letters, 478: 14-18.
  • Walla, P., Richter, M., Färber, S., Leodolter, U., and Bauer, H. (2010). Food evoked changes in humans: Startle response modulation and event-related potentials (ERPs). Journal of Psychophysiology, 24: 25-32.
  • Walla, P., Imhof, H., and Lang, W. (2009). A gender difference related to the effect of a background odor: A Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Journal of Neural Transmission, 116(10): 1227-1236.
  • Khittl, B., Bauer, H., and Walla, P. (2009). Change detection related to peripheral facial expression: an electroencephalography (EEG) study. Journal of Neural Transmission, 116(1): 67-70.
  • Walla, P., Duregger, C., Greiner, K., Thurner, S., and Ehrenberger, K. (2008). Multiple aspects related to self awareness and the awareness of others: an Electroencephalography (EEG) study. Journal of Neural Transmission, 115(7):983-92.
  • Walla, P. (2008). Olfaction and its dynamic influence on word and face processing: Cross-modal integration. Progress in Neurobiology, 84: 192-209.
  • Rigaud, D., Romer, M., Walla, P., Van Wymelbeke, V., Jiang T., Deecke, L., and Brondel, L. (2007). Influence of BMI, gender and age on sensory-specific satiety with simple foods in humans. Int J Obesity, 31(6): 987-995.
  • Walla, P., Greiner, K., Duregger, C., Deecke, L., and Thurner, S. (2007). Self awareness and the subconscious effect of personal pronouns on word encoding: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuropsychologia, 45: 796-809.
  • Duregger, C., Bauer, H., Cunnington, R., Lindinger, G., Deecke, L., Lang, W., Dirnberger, G., and Walla, P. (2007). EEG evidence of gender differences in a motor related CNV study. Journal of Neural Transmission, 114 (3): 359-366.
  • Staresina, B., Bauer, H., Deecke, L. and Walla, P. (2005). Magnetoencephalographic correlates of different levels in subjective recognition memory. Neuroimage, 27(1):83-94.
  • Staresina, B.P., Bauer, H., Deecke, L., and Walla, P. (2005). Neurocognitive correlates of incidental verbal memory encoding: a magnetoencephalocraphic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 25(2): 430-443.
  • Walla, P., Mayer, D., Deecke, L., and Lang, W. (2005). How chemical information processing interferes with face processing: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 24(1): 111-117.
  • Walla, P., Püregger, E., Lehrner, J., Mayer, D., Deecke, L., and Dal Bianco, P. (2005). Depth of word processing in Alzheimer patients and normal controls: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neural Transmission, 112(5): 713-730.
  • Walla, P., Mayer, D., Deecke, L., and Thurner, S. (2004). The lack of focused anticipation  of verbal information in stutterers. Neuroimage, 22(3): 1321-1327.
  • Püregger, E, Walla, P., Deecke, L., and Dal-Bianco, P. (2003). Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) – features related to Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Neuroimage, 20: 2235-2244.
  • Thurner, S., Windischberger, C., Moser, E., Walla, P., and Barth, M. (2003). Scaling laws and persistence in human brain activity. Physica A, 326: 511-521.
  • Walla, P., Lehrner, J., Nasel, C., Baumgartner, C., Deecke, L., and Lang, W. (2003). Preserved memory traces within diencephalic amnesia. Journal of Neural Transmission, 110(5): 537-543.
  • Walla, P., Hufnagl, B., Lehrner, J., Mayer, D., Lindinger, G., Imhof, H., Deecke, L., and Lang, W. (2003). Olfaction and depth of word processing: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study (Neuroimage, 18(1): 104-11
  • Walla, P., Hufnagl, B., Lehrner, J., Mayer, D., Lindinger, G., Imhof, H., Deecke, L., and Lang, W. (2003). Olfaction and face encoding in humans: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Cognitive Brain Research, 15(2): 105-115.
  • Walla, P., Hufnagl, B., Lehrner, J., Mayer, D., Lindinger, G., Deecke, L., and Lang, W. (2002). Evidence of conscious and subconscious olfactory information processing during word encoding: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Cognitive Brain Research, 14: 309-316.
  • Pueregger, E., Walla, P., Deecke, L, et al. (2002). Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) features relate to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Neurobiology of Aging (Supplement), 23(1): 471-471.
  • Walla, P., Hufnagl, B., Lindinger, G., Deecke, L., and Lang, W. (2001). Physiological evidence of gender differences in word recognition: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Cognitive Brain Research, 12(1): 49-54.
  • Cunnington, R., Lalouschek, W., Dirnberger, G., Walla, P., Lindinger, G., Asenbaum, S., Brucke, T., and Lang, W. (2001). A medial to lateral shift in pre-movement cortical activity in hemi-Parkinson's disease. Clinical Neurophysiology 112(4): 608-618.
  • Walla, P., Hufnagl, B., Lindinger, G., Deecke, L., Imhof, H., and Lang, W. (2001). False recognition depends on depth of prior word processing: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Cognitive Brain Research, 11: 249-257.
  • Walla, P., Hufnagl, B., Lindinger, G., Imhof, H., Deecke, L., and Lang, W. (2001). Left temporal and temporo-parietal brain activity depends on depth of word encoding: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study in healthy young subjects. Neuroimage, 13: 402-409.
  • Lehrner J.P., Eckersberger C., Walla P., Pötsch G., Deecke L. (2000). Ambient odour of orange reduces anxiety and improves mood in female patients waiting for dental treatment. Physiology and Behaviour, 71: 83-86.
  • Walla, P., Endl, W., Lindinger, G., Deecke, L., and Lang, W. (2000). False recognition in a verbal memory task: an event-related potential study. Cognitive Brain Research, 9(1): 41-44.
  • Lehrner, J.P., Walla, P., Laska, M., Deecke, L. (1999). Different forms of human odour memory. Neuroscience Letters, 272(1): 17-20.
  • Walla, P., Endl, W., Lindinger, G., Deecke, L., Lang, W. (1999). Implicit memory within a word recognition task: an event-related potential study in human subjects. Neuroscience Letters 269(3), 129-132.
  • Endl, W., Walla, P., Lindinger, G., Deecke, L., and Lang, W. (1999). Event-related potential correlates of false recognitions of faces. Neuroscience Letters 265(2), 115-118.
  • Walla P., Endl W., Lindinger G., Lalouschek W., Deecke L., and Lang W. (1999). Early occipito-parietal activity in a word recognition task: an EEG and MEG study. Clinical Neurophysiology 110: 1378-1387.
  • Rugg, M.D., Walla, P., Schloerscheidt, A.M., Fletcher, P.C., Frith, C.D., Dolan, R.J. (1998). Neural correlates of depth of processing effects on recollection: evidence from brain potentials and PET. Experimental Brain Research, 123:1/2, 18-23.
  • Rugg, M.D., Mark, R.E., Walla, P., Schloerscheidt, A.M., Birch, C.S., and Allan, K. (1998). Dissociation of the neural correlates of implicit and explicit memory. Nature, 392, 9 April, 595-598.
  • Endl, W., Walla, P., Lindinger, G., Lalouschek, W., Barth, F.G., Deecke, L., and Lang, W. (1998). Early cortical activation indicates preparation for retrieval of memory for faces: an event-related potential study. Neuroscience Letters 240, 58-60.
  • Endl, W., Walla, P., Lindinger, G, et al. (1998). Event related brain potentials in a recognition memory task for faces. European journal of Neuroscience (Supplement), 10: 147-147.
  • Walla, P., Endl, W., Lindinger, G, et al. (1998). A new study about recognition memory for words: Same responses but different event-related potentials. European journal of Neuroscience (Supplement), 10: 148-148.
  • Walla, P. (1998). Neurophysiologie menschlicher Gedächtnisfunktionen. Dissertation. Universität Wien in Kooperation mit der Medizinischen Universität Wien
  • Walla, P., Barth F.G., Eguchi, E. (1996). Spectral Sensitivity of Single Photoreceptor Cells in the Eyes of the Ctenid Spider Cupiennius salei Keys. Zoological Science, 13: 199-202.
  • Walla, P. (1993). Intrazelluläre Ableitungen einzelner Sehzellen der Spinne Cupiennius salei Keys.. Diplomarbeit. Universität Wien.

Books and book chapters

  • Koller, M., and Walla, P. (2022): Alternative methods to study affective information processing in brand co-creation. In: Research Handbook on Brand Co-Creation: Theory, Practice and Ethical Implications; Markovic, S., Gyrd-Jones, R., von Wallpach, S., Lindgreen, A. (Ed.), ISBN: 978 1 83910 541 8. Edward Elgar Publishing (31.3.2022)
  • Walla, P., Mavratzakis, and Bosshard, S., (2013). Neuroimaging to Research Affective Processing and to Deliver to Consumer Neuroscience. Novel Frontiers of Advanced Neuroimaging, Kostas N. Fountas (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0923-5, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/51042. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/novel-frontiers-of-advanced-neuroimaging/neuroimaging-for-the-affective-brain-sciences-and-its-role-in-advancing-consumer-neuroscience
  • Walla, P., and Panksepp, J. (2013). Neuroimaging helps to clarify brain affective processing without necessarily clarifying emotions. Novel Frontiers of Advanced Neuroimaging, Kostas N. Fountas (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0923-5, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/51761. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/novel-frontiers-of-advanced-neuroimaging/neuroimaging-helps-to-clarify-brain-affective-processing-without-necessarily-clarifying-emotions
  • Walla, P. (2011). Non-conscious brain processes as revealed by MEG. In: Magnetoencephalography (MEG), Intech Publisher.
  • Walla, P. and Dal-Bianco, P. "Verrückt was unser Gehirn alles kann, selbst wenn es versagt" (2010). Galila Publisher; ISBN 978-3-902533-50-0. (3000 copies)
  • Walla, P. (2007). Habilitationsschrift 2 für das Fach “Biologische Psychologie” an der Universität Wien.
  • Lehrner, J., Walla, P. (2003). Development of odor naming and odor memory from childhood to young adulthood. In: Olfaction, Taste and Cognition, Camebridge University Press.
  • Walla, P. (2003). Habilitationsschrift 1 für das Fach “Kognitive Neurobiologie“ an der Medizinischen Universität Wien.


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